Indonesia Aru and Arafura Demersal Fish – Longline
The Aru and Arafura Seas snapper, grouper, and demersal species FIP was established in May 2012. The FIP involves 46 bottom longline vessels. Some additional context and history of this FIP’s efforts can be viewed the FIP’s website, as well as FishSource.
The FIP supports and contributes to the development, improvement, traceability and sustainability of the snapper-grouper and demersal fisheries industry in Indonesia by: promoting traceability, improving the availability of accurate data on catches retained and bycatch, and collaborating with other institutions working on the fisheries issues in the country. This includes working together to improve the management and policy for sustainable fisheries.
The distribution of snapper (kakap merah) and grouper (kerapu) in Indonesia covers the vast area of the archipelago, with Aru and the Arafura Seas being the major fishing grounds for snapper and deeper water grouper species. Data from the Indonesian Capture Fisheries Statistics show that in 2007, kakapmerah from these waters contributed to more than 30% of the total catch, with 35,112 metric tonnes being landed (MMAF 2009). The total landing of snapper in Indonesia was 116,994 metric tonnes in 2007. The other important fishing grounds for snapper are in the Karimata Strait, the Natuna Sea, and the South China Sea, which contributed 13.9% of the total catch, followed by Tolo Bay and the Banda Sea (11.8%), Java Sea (10.5%) and the Makassar Strait, Bone Bay, the Flores Sea and the Bali Sea (8.1%).
Snappers, grouper, and other demersal are the target fisheries for traditional, small-scale, and semi-industrial fisheries. The traditional fishing trips normal last one day, while the small-scale to semi-industrial fishing trips can last for days to weeks, and target other demersal species.
Malabar snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus)
Crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus)
Emperor snapper (Lutjanus sebae)
Goldband snapper (Pristipomoides multidens)
Spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
Areolate grouper (Epinephelus areolatus)
Duskytail grouper (Epinephelus bleekeri)
Grass emperor (Lethrinus spp.)
Cobia (Rachycentron canadum)
Painted sweetlip (Diagramma pictum)
Blackspotted croaker (Protonibea diacanthus)
Blackmouth croaker (Atrobucca nibe)
FIP Scope/Scale: Fishery level
Fishing gear: Bottom longline
Fishery Location: Aru and Arafura
FIP formed: May 2012
FIP Stage : 4 (Improvements in Fishing Practices or Fishery Management )
FIP Supply Leader
FIP Aim and Objectives
To ensure the long-term sustainability and traceability of the snapper, grouper, and other demersal fishery to support the livelihoods of fishers and the long-term supply for the fishing industry.
- Ensure that the origins for 100% of catch of snapper, grouper, and other demersal products purchased are well-known and are all coming from legal fisheries and supply chains by July 2022.
- Improve the harvest data recording through logbooks to support the development of the fisheries management plan in Aru and Arafura Seas by July 2022.
- Support and advocate for an improved Labor Standard in the fishery sector by June 2022.
- To have a reliable source of data, first, all fishery parties in Indonesia must have sufficient knowledge regarding sustainable fishery and its relations with data collection. Data are needed to make rational decisions, to evaluate fisheries performance in relation with management objectives and fulfill requirements. The Government must educate all parties from Companies to Artisanal Fishermen regarding data collection, and must ensure that timely, complete and reliable statistics on catch and fishing effort are collected and maintained in accordance with applicable international standards and practices and in sufficient detail to allow sound statistical analysis. Such data should be updated regularly and verified through an appropriate system.
- Inspectors are a kind of enumerator involved in law enforcement and surveillance (for fishing regulations, sanitary inspections, labour control, etc.). They may work at sea on surveillance vessels, at landing sites on shore, at processing factories and at markets. Inspectors are also useful in collecting employment data. Inspectors may play an important role in verification. In many cases, reports can be physically checked with observations. Government must make a specific regulations regarding sustainable fishery and start to create policy for all fishing area. Every area has certain condition, the policy must be specific to the condition so sustainable fishery can be achieved.
The distribution of snapper (kakap merah) and grouper (kerapu) in Indonesia covers the vast area of the archipelago, with the Eastern Timor Sea, Aru and the Arafura Seas being the major fishing grounds for snapper and deeper water grouper species. Data from the Indonesian Capture Fisheries Statistics show that in 2007, kakap merah from these waters contributed to more than 30% of the total catch, with 35,112 metric tonnes being landed (MMAF 2009). The total landing of snapper in Indonesia was 116,994 metric tonnesin 2007. The other important fishing grounds for snapper are in the Karimata Strait, the Natuna Sea, and the South China Sea, which contributed 13.9% of the total catch, followed by Tolo Bay and the Banda Sea (11.8%), Java Sea (10.5%) and the Makassar Strait, Bone Bay, the Flores Sea and the Bali Sea (8.1%).
Snappers, grouper, and other demersal are the target fisheries for traditional, small-scale and to semi-industrial fisheries. The traditional fishery is a one day fishing trip, while the small-scale to semi industrial fisheries fish for days to weeks, and target other demersal species.
The main challenges to this fishery include:
- A comprehensive nationwide biological stock assessment for snapper (Lutjanusspp.)and grouper (Serranidae) are not available. Therefore the status of snapper and grouper populations in Indonesia cannot be determined against the biological reference points. It is difficult to improve the fishery management without knowing the status and condition of the fish stock.
- Data on the artisanal snapper, grouper and other demersal fisheries is lacking.
- Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a major issue in the Timor and Arafura Seas.
- Trawls used in the wide shallow shelf of the Arafura Sea catch juveniles snappers and groupers species as well as other species..
Fishing methods and gear
The Fisheries District Office of Probolinggo and the Head of Sub-directorate of Evaluation of Fishery Resource Management, Directorate of Fishery Resources Jakarta office reviewed logbook recorded by the FIP vessels and suggested improvements for recording
On July 16, FIP participants, companies interested in FIP, scientists, and government officials were invited by SFP to attend the Indonesian Snapper Supplier Roundtable in Surabaya. The snapper supplier roundtable provided a venue for industries to receive updates on FIP implementation (the progress and challenges) and to get guidance from the government regarding data and information management to support fisheries resource management.
On September 30, FIP participants together with the staff from the Fisheries District Office of Probolinggo and the Head of Sub-directorate of Evaluation of Fishery Resource Management, Directorate of Fishery ResourcesJakarta office reviewed data collection for the logbook. The meeting was attended by SFP, the captains of bottom longline vessels that catch snapper in the Arafura, Aru, and Timor Seas and representative from companies participated in FIP. The meeting took place in the Fishing Port in Probolinggo, East Java (where all the snapper bottom longliners land their catches).
The FIP has transitioned to be industry-led by PT Inti Lautan Fajar Abadi, the processing company based in Pasuruan, East Java.
On 17 March, FIP leader PT. Inti Lautan Fajar Abadi (formerly PT Ilufa) presented the FIP’s progress, lessons learned, and next steps during the Indonesian Fisheries Meeting hosted by MMAF and SFP in Boston at the Seafood Expo North America.
FIP participants organized a FIP meeting on 18 March in Boston (PT. Inti Lautan Fajar Abadi, North Atlantic, and Hilo Fish) to discuss the FIP’s 2014 workplan, budget, and leadership transition process. As of April 2014, Fisheries Improvement Indonesia asssumed a project leadership position and agreed to host the FIP Public Report.
An observer from the Directorate General of capture Fisheries, MMAF has been onboard KM. Setia Indah, one of bottom longline vessels member of FIP, from May 9 for 50 days at sea.
In September, there are 3 National observers onboard bottom longline vessels.
Continue support the Government enumerators to record catch at the landing site in Probolinggo Mayangan harbour.
The 2015 highlights were the implementation of electronic log books (Elog) on two or three pilot vessels and the development of in house processing software that will allow for complete lot traceability form vessel to merchant. Both systems will be up and running in 2017 with further evaluation of Elogs as the most cost effective traceability tool.
In addition to the traceability work there is ongoing catch data gathering and storage. The government sponsored observer program continues to be on hold affecting forward progress on bycatch recording.
Vessel licensing review and approval has dragged on well past a year leaving several on our FIP boats at the wharf for over 12 months.
January – June
- Attended FIP consultation meeting with the staff of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) to discuss 2014 catch data recording. General feedback received from the MMAF to state that data recording has been improved.
- FIP sent a letter to the MMAF to request a report from the observers onboard durng 2014. To date report has not been received, and another letter is planned to be submitted.
- The program on the improved traceability and pilot project on e-logbook has started to be implemented, activities include: 1) e-logbook developer visited and conduct scoping for installaton and plant software modification at the facility of PT Inti Lautan Fajar Abadi; 2) Fish segregation plan for fish on catcher and collecting vessel developed; 3) The plan will be reviewed and to seek feedback from vessel captains on the practicality of the plan.
- Meeting with MMAF in Jakarta to present the program has been held at the MAAF office in June. The objective of the meeting was to seek advise for e-logbook with the intention to integrate with gov’t system.
July – December
- Two FIP vessels KM Cemerlang 12 and KM Samudra Indah participated in the trial of E-log book system since August. The vessel Captain entry the catch data daily in the laptop onboard, and transmiiting the data to FIP Head Quarter in Pasuruan, east Java. The main challenge in the implementation of the e-logbook is the satellite telephone connection, which often has very poor quality.
- The bottom longline Aru, Arafura and Timor Seas snapper fisheries are multi-species. Where the catch not only include snapper and grouper, but also other demersal fisheries. Starting October, the recording of the production data will include sweetlips, emperor and parrotfish.
- The FIP will expand to small scale snapper fishery in Java Sea and the pre FIP has started with the information gathering including catch composition and production.
- Quirch Foods has joined Snapper- grouper and other demersal FIP in Aru, Arafura and Timor Seas.
January – June
In 2016, PT Inti Lautan Fajar Abadi and P.T. Permata Marindo Jaya will be joining forces under the “Supporting the Future of Indonesian Fisheries” logo. These two companies working together cover a wide range of species in both the demeral and pelagic categories. This will allow our FIP to organize traceable data on more species in preparation for eventual stock assessment. There are synergisms to be mined by combining the resources, catch data, and traceability expertise of our companies. We will work toward incorporating traceability in our supply chains over the coming year.
In addition to the large vessel Elog pilot undergoing implementation at PT Inti Lautan Fajar Abadi we will be broadening our traceability pilot to include small vessels as well. We will be expanding the small vessels tracking system using tracking devices from Pelagic Data Systems to an additional small vessel supply areas. Vessels in Brondong, Indonesia will receive tracking devices and the data stream will be monitored by our FIP partners and P.T. Bali Seafood. BSI already has a small vessel traceability pilot on the island of Sumbawa and will assist the expanded FIP is using the data and expanding the Brondung pilot over time.
These are exciting developments for this combined FIP and support our belief that traceability will continue to grow in importance as a fundamental element in fisheries management. Traceability provides the market confidence that supply can be traced back to responsibly harvested sources and will also feed data into fisheries management programs.
July – Dec
The installation of the passive vessel tracking system (VTS) in Brondong, Indonesia marks the first time a fleet owner has put multiple traceability pilots in motion in order to develop broad based traceability across large and small vessel fleets. By Q1 2017 Intan Seafood will be receiving real time location and fishing pressure data from both supply sources. The installation of the VTS on small boats requires cooperation from fishers as well as first level collectors. The next step is to employ a tablet based landing data input system that identifies all landings by species, weight, level of quality, date of landing, and pricing. This information is correlated with the vessel name, captain, and license number allowing total transparency to the processor. The tablet application is under development now and expected to be available early in Q1 2017.
Intan continues to work with Traceall Indonesia to build lout the processing lot tracking system. This is the final step in vessel to merchant traceability.
- This FIP supports and contributes to the improvement, traceability, and sustainability of snapper-grouper in Indonesia, through FIP
development in Arafura and Timor Sea. The FIP steps are to continue with some improvement measures, which will be further developed
as time progresses:
• Support improvement of catch data collection.
• Support the collection and analysis of fishery dependent data for stock assessment
• Support the national program on eliminating IUU
• Support the national program for workplace safety and worker protection
• Support the development of snapper-grouper fishery management plan in Arafura and Timor Sea
• Test passive vessel tracking system for accuracy of location data
• Test scalability of inshore passive vessel tracking as first step in small vessel traceability
- The FIP forecasted outcomes for 2018 are to:
o Continue to accumulate accurate catch data and upload to Fish Source;
o Apply certified International Labor Organization standards and means of redressed to operations in place of conventional social audit;
o Implement a document tracking system for SIMP audits.
- Add 2018 Workplan to replace 2017 workplan in detailed workplan
- FIP is published
- Continue updating catch data
- Continue developing white paper supporting ILO standards as social audit